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Abstract


HISTORY OF ANCIENT TURKS

The article deals with the issues of the Turkic Khaganate, the Turgesh Khanate, the Karluk-Karakhan state, living in the Turkic era of the 12th and 19th centuries, until the formation of the Kazakh Khanate. The history of the ancient Turkish people and the history of the state which was created by them has a great historical significance in the world history. At the end of the sixth century, the Turkic Khaganate in the west was bordered by Byzantium, in north by Persia and India, and in the east by China, it is clear that the political history of these countries at that time was connected with the fate of the Turkish state.The formation of the Turkish state was a turning point in the whole history of mankind,because until that time the Orthodox culture and the Far Eastern culture did not unite despite the fact that they knew about existence of each other in the world. The endless steppes and the glorious mountains impeded the relations of the East and the West. Only later, making a metal stirrup and inventing equipments for carriages made it easier for passengers to pass through the desert and the sea more easily.That is why, from the beginning of the sixth century, the Chinese had to reckon with the market of Constantinople and the Byzantines had to calculate the number of Chinese king’s archers. The historical period of the unification of the Turkic states within the framework of state structures is closely connected with the activities of the tribes, which were systematically changing in the political arena. The survival of the Turkic, Turgesh, Uighur, Kyrgyz, Karluk, Oguz and Kaganaks proves that state structures on the territory of Kazakhstan had centuries-old traditions and that the tribes were striving for unity. The Oguz relocation to the Aral Sea and West Kazakhstan was not easy.They had to settle there by suppressing resistance by force of two tribes of the Aral Sea (Pechenegs), Kangarians and other clans, and also further to the west, the descendants of the Sarmatians and the Finno-Ugric tribes. In the tenth century the Oguz State became a significant force in the military and political life of the Eurasian steppes. The next step in strengthening the Turkic tribes is related to the Kipchak and Kekak tribes that inhabited the eastern and northern regions of Kazakhstan. The new, most developed stage of this historical process consists not only of these tribes, but also of the Karakhanids, which included the inhabitants of Murennakhr. In this case, the Turks considered themselves not only as a connector, but also they developed their culture and believed that they can oppose to the Chinese, Iranian, Byzantine, Indian cultures. There are traditions and deep roots in this unique culture of the steppes, but we are, to a lesser degree, familiar with it than the culture of the. sedentary people.



Keywords
Turkish khanate, states, Kazakh Khanate, Huns



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